The Company's Honorary Curator, Dr Andrew Wilton, will be writing occasional articles on works of art owned by the Company.
Charles I c.1643 by Henry Stone ("Old
Oil on canvas, tondo,
42 in. diameter
Henry Stone was the
eldest of the three sons of Nicholas Stone (1586-1647), Master Mason to both
James I and Charles I, and a prolific designer of monumental sculpture; he is
thought to have designed the York Water Gate in London, and is the documented
author of the ornate Baroque gateway to St Mary the Virgin, Oxford. Henry’s
mother was the daughter of the Amsterdam architect Hendrik de Keyser. Henry
acquired the name of ‘Old Stone’ as a means of distinguishing him from his
slightly younger brother John, who was never, apparently, a painter.
studied in Holland under his uncle, the distinguished Dutch portraitist Thomas
de Keyser (1596-1667). Between 1638 and 1643 he travelled in France and Italy
with his brother Nicholas (the younger), returning to England to set up a
successful business as a painter of portraits and a copyist of the works of Van
Dyck (1599-1641), as well as carrying on his father’s craft of sculptor. In
Rome, he met the great sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), who asked him
anxiously about the care and condition of the fine portrait bust of Charles I
that he had sculpted from a famous painting of the King by Van Dyck (Royal
Collection). In addition to painting and carving, Stone was the author of a
short treatise, ‘The Third Part of the Art of Painting’. He is buried in St Martin-in-the-Fields.
The Company’s portrait
of Charles I (born 1600; reigned 1625-49) is neither copied from one by Van
Dyck nor closely reliant on any of Van Dyck’s images of the King. Although he
gained a reputation as a copyist of the Flemish master’s portraits, Stone made
many on his own account, following his father in loyalty to the Crown and taking
the King’s side in the Civil War.
the few paintings in the Company’s collection to have survived the Great Fire
of London, this fine tondo is an original composition, striking for its
directness and simple force, and well exemplifying the distinction for which
Stone’s paintings were known during his lifetime. The King holds his sceptre
and wears very prominently, as a cloak, the crimson drapery that was symbolic
of his authority and echoed in the sashes of his supporters. The picture must
have been painted after Stone’s return from the Continent, during the Civil
War, when such symbolic attributes would have possessed enhanced significance.
A crimson sash features prominently in a number of paintings of the King’s
supporters by another member of the Company, William Dobson (1611-1646), who is
unfortunately not represented in the collection today. (A fine example,
including sash, is the portrait of Richard Neville in the National Portrait
Our Hon. Liveryman Dr Alan Borg, in his History of the Company, has
suggested that the Painter-Stainers in general held Royalist opinions at the
time of the Civil War – as indeed their métier
would imply: they were employed to add lustre to the occasions, not to mention
the egos, of the rich and powerful. The Parliamentarians, by contrast - though
not universally – set little store by flamboyant show.
Master Clement Pargiter with Thomas Babb and William Peacock
Unknown artist, 1631 Oil on canvas
51 x 61 in.
Prov: The Painter Stainers Company; … Lord Monson of
Burton Hall, Lincoln… sale ?1955; bt. by Reginald Baker Smith, Master, by whom
presented to the Company 1955
Lit: W A D Englefield, The History of the Painter-Stainers Company of London, vol. I, 2nd
issue 1996, p. 13, 18, 43; A P Arnold and A G Ingram, The History of the Painter-Stainers Company of London, 1988 vol II
pp. 12, 16-19, repr. in colour p. 51; Borg pp. 50-51, repr. in colour p. 50
Both this and the group portrait of Master John Potkin
and his Wardens have been severely lined and the quality of the original paint
surface has largely been lost. Modern varnish has further reduced the sharpness
of the images. Nevertheless the details of both pictures are fairly clearly
readable. The latter presents its sitters almost without accessories, but here
there are coats of arms and a prominent swag of green drapery, which in its
handling recalls the shimmering fabrics that feature in the portraits of
William Larkin, who joined the Company, as Borg conjectures, in 1606, and died
in 1619. Although the layout of the
composition is conventional, as can be expected of almost all portraits from this
period, the characterisation of the individual faces is of some quality, and
the presence of three devices or escutcheons painted on the background close to
the three sitters confirms their identity.
They are, however, not the usual trio of Master flanked
by Upper and Renter Wardens (as shown in the Potkin picture). Here, Pargeter,
who was Master both in 1624 and in 1629, has his Renter Warden for 1624, Thomas
Babb, on his right but on his left neither of his Upper Wardens, Martin Hall
(1624) or Henry Isaacson (1629), but William Peacock, who became Master in
1634. This was clearly not, as Borg points out, a standard record of the senior
officers of the Company in either of Pargeter’s years as Master. He died in
March 1631, and that year is given in the inscription on the picture. In the
same month, the Court issued an order that a large unpainted canvas - ‘the
cloth that is in the great frame unwrought’ should be ‘delivered unto Mrs
Pargiter to be at her disposing to have her husband’s picture wrought in
While the Potkin group remained in the Company’s
possession throughout its history, the Pargeter picture ceased to be a part of
the Company’s collection at some period still uncertain. But it was still
displayed in the Hall as late as October 1648, when it was ordered to be
‘removed close to the clock and the picture of Mr Knight, Mr Constable and Mr
Holmden set in the same place.’ (These had been Master and Wardens in 1647.
Their picture as not survived.) The fact that the Pargeter picture was still on
the wall is an indication that it was in some way exceptional. It was
presumably painted to commemorate not merely Pargeter’s Mastership in two
different years, but his lifetime’s service to the Company; and his two
companions were probably friends and associates of especial importance to him.
It is also evident that the deceased Master’s widow was instrumental in causing
the picture to be painted.
It may have been at her insistence that Pargeter is
not depicted with any of the conventional signs used in portraying the dead.
(He is not introduced as an image on the wall behind the other sitters; nor is
he wearing a shroud.) He is shown as he would be in any depiction of a Master,
very much alive, and flanked by two colleagues, though he is the only sitter to
boast headgear: he wears a striking embroidered and lace-edged skull-cap. He
has a book and writing implements on the carpet-covered table in front of him.
William Peacock, to his left, displays a picture, presumably a specimen of his
work, a miniature depiction, perhaps on ivory, of Saint Catherine of
Alexandria, kneeling and with a glory bursting above her head. (Englefield
suggests that the subject is St Luke, patron saint of artists, but this seems
not to be the case.) Behind Thomas Babb to the left hangs a framed painting, of
which we see only the corner. It appears to be a grisaille representation of a sleeping man, very possibly, as Borg
suggests, a soldier in a Resurrection scene. These objects, including he
escutcheons, all represent aspects of the skills and crafts offered by
Painter-Stainers. Their employment of grisaille
as a standard medium for decorative work is well demonstrated in the series of
subordinate panels in the Painted Chamber.
When the picture was in the possession of Lord Monson,
it was ascribed to the Dutch portraitist Cornelius Johnson (1593-1661), a
member of the Company and one of the most famous of the Jacobean portrait
painters in working London before Van Dyck. That attribution cannot be
sustained; John Crows, who is recorded as an apprentice of Johnson’s in 1625,
might be advanced as a possible candidate for authorship of the picture.
Master John Potkin with his Wardens Thomas Carleton and John Taylor
Unknown artist 1631 Unknown artist Oil on canvas Lit: Englefieldp. 18; Borg p.51, repr. in colour fig 22 Exh: Tate Gallery 1972
The condition and recent conservation history of this
triple portrait are similar to those of the Pargeter painting, though unlike
the latter it has remained in the Company’s collection since it was painted.
Potkin, Carleton and Taylor were Master and Wardens of the Company in 1631, and
their group portrait was installed in the Hall in September of the following
year. This is a notably less elaborate work than the Pargeter triple portrait.
It contains no glistening drapery or coats of arms, the table on which Potkin
leans is carpeted but otherwise bare, and there are no specimens of work on
view except for a modest scroll with three heraldic devices, the arms of the
three sitters, rather shyly opened to view by John Taylor on the right. Taylor
is of particular interest as the reputed painter of the Chandos portrait of
William Shakespeare, in the National Portrait Gallery, the earliest and most
plausibly authentic likeness of the playwright. There is a possibility that
this picture is his work also, though it is to be noted that Taylor is not
shown looking out at the spectator, which was an accepted way for an artist to
‘sign’ his own work. It is at least possible that the Potkin and Pargeter
pictures are the work of the same artist, and the fact that the two pictures
are similar in general conception and appearance, and were produced within a
year of each other, tends to support that suggestion.
Marble Bust of Thomas
Edward Pearce (or Pierce) d. 1695
Thomas Evans was Upper Warden in 1664 and Master in 1666-67. Pearce’s bust may date from that time but
is generally assigned to a decade later.
It is a superlative example of
Baroque portrait sculpture, reflecting the influence of Bernini – especially
perhaps the bust of Louis XIV of 1665 at Versailles; another fine bust by
Bernini, that of Sir Thomas Baker, dating from 1638, was in England, in Sir
Peter Lely’s collection, by 1680 (it is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum). But Pearce’s bust is an assured and
imaginative work in its own right. The
spectacular undercutting of the sumptuously curled wig and the delicate lace
bands at his neck are incorporated into the easy rhythms of an entirely natural
and unforced pose which is at the same time grand and expressive of vigorous
Most sculpture of the time to have come down to us with the artist’s
name attached is by practitioners from abroad – van Nost, Rysbrack etc. Pearce
reveals himself here as an independent master worthy to stand alongside them,
and indeed was a prolific and celebrated artist, a sculptor in both wood and
stone as well as painter, in his day. His
father, also Edward, was a Painter-Stainer who died in 1658, an artist ‘of some
repute’, as the Dictionary of National
Biography says, as a painter of decorative panels and altarpieces for City
churches, though none of these are
Pearce attracted attention when
he executed wood-carvings for Sir Charles Wolseley at Wolseley Hall, and went
on to carry out much work for Wren at St Lawrence Jewry and several other City
churches, as well as the Guildhall. The
dragon on the weather-vane of St Mary le Bow was designed by him.The wooden swags and drops that he carved in
1664 to flank the front door of Painters’ Hall have survived the vicissitudes
of fire and bombing, and are now in the entrance of the new Hall, and his
glass-painting of the Royal Arms is also preserved in the Court Room.
In 1685, at the expense of the Fishmongers,
he produced a statue of Queen Elizabeth for the Royal Exchange, for which place
he also made a statue of Sir Thomas Gresham.
His bust of Wren is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
His work was held in high esteem both in England and abroad. Rupert Gunnis, in his Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851 (London 1951), records a
party given by the antiquary John Talman (son of the architect William Talman)
in Rome in 1711: ‘around the walls were painted heads of famous Italian and
English artists – Palladio, Raphael and Bonaroti [sic], on the one side, and Inigo Jones, [Isaac] Fuller and Pearce
on the other.’
The bust was restored and cleaned by Taylor Pearce Restoration Services
Ltd in 2017 which was paid for by a generous donation from Past Master Peter Hammerson (Master 2009).